Friday, 15 August 2014

Thyroid cysts: better understand the diagnosis and treatment

Cysts of thyroid or thyroid nodules are cystic lesions partially or completely filled with fluid. Are very common and can be half of thyroid nodules. Most are asymptomatic and discovered by chance, but symptoms such as pain or tightness in the neck may also occur, depending on the size of the lesion.
thyroid cysts

According to the cells that constitute the cysts can be benign thyroid  or malignant (carcinoma, ie, thyroid cancer). Fortunately, the vast majority of these lesions are benign. It is estimated that only 2 of 100 cystic are malignant. In addition, the lesions with a larger cystic component, i.e. more fluid than cells have a lower risk of malignancy.

Diagnosis and treatment of
thyroid cysts

In the evaluation of cystic thyroid nodules are fundamental: the clinical history of the patient, TSH, ultrasound and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Simple thyroid cysts need not be punctured, as are virtually always benign. Cystic nodules with solid component should be drained when larger than 1.5 or 2 cm in diameter. Depending on their characteristics is also need to do an ultrasound to rule out the diagnosis of cancer.
The treatment of cystic thyroid nodules depends on the result of FNA. Malignant lesions should be removed through surgery. Benign lesions can have its liquid contents aspirated, being operated or simply observed. There is also the possibility of injecting alcohol into the cyst after aspiration of fluid.

  However, studies evaluating this therapeutic modality are small, showed a considerable rate of severe to moderate pain (20%) and followed patients for only 6-12 months. Therefore, there are still data that can demonstrate long-term efficacy.

If you have any lesions in the thyroid, whether cystic or not, look for an endocrinologist for evaluation, diagnosis and treatment.

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